Omnia helps to maintain a healthy immune system.
Chondroitin sulphate is a component of Omnia. Chondroitin sulphate chains are thought to mediate many of the binding interactions between our immune cells and proteins .
Fig. 1.: Omnia consists of a large protein core, which is attached to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains are made up of repeating chondroitin sulphate (CS) disaccharide subunits linked to form varying lengths .
Inflammatory responses, as a result of infection, require the migration of leukocytes from the vasculature to the infected area. Proteoglycans, including CSPGs, present on cell surface, facilitate leukocyte migration and modulate inflammation through the following mechanisms:
- The direct activation of immune cells, such as T-cells, B-cells and monocytes via CD44 receptor;
- The direct activation of Toll-like receptors that recognize invariant structures (such as LPS) on pathogens. Recognition of these structures by TLRs results in the activation of the innate immune response;
- Binding to inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which localises them to specific sites;
- The ability to facilitate and promote leukocyte adhesion and migration;
- Interactions between proteoglycans and matrix metalloproteinases, eg. proteoglycans conceal proteolytic cleavage sites protecting chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors from proteolysis.
In conclusion, proteoglycans provide precise control of tissue inflammation and immune response , , , .
Chondroitin sulphate as an immune modulator.
Too much activation of macrophages, accompanied by hyperproduction of inflammatory cytokines, induces damage in cells and causes inflammatory diseases. In this case, it is important to alleviate excess activation.
Here, chondrotin sulphate may act as potent immuno-modulator.
On the molecular level, one of the key players of inflammation process is NF-kB – protein complex, which controls gene transcription. Its activation, followed by nuclear translocation, results in binding to promoters of proinflammatory genes and production of proteins that contribute to tissue damage and to the inflammatory reaction. Chondroitin sulphate is able to diminish NF-kB activation and nuclear translocation, therefore acts as immune-modulator.
This activity explains therapeutic effect of CS medical administration in multiple immune-mediated diseases, such as osteoarthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease or atherosclerosis , .
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